The ammonia molecule features a trigonal pyramidal shape as predicted through the valence shell electron set repulsion theory with an experimentally determined bond angle of 106.7°. The main nitrogen atom provides five outer electrons with one more electron from every hydrogen atom.
This gives an overall of eight electrons or four electron
sets that are set up tetrahedrally. Three of these electron sets are used like
bond pairs, which leaves one lone set of electrons. The lone set of electrons
repel more highly than bond pairs, therefore the bond angle is not 109.5°, as
expected for a normal tetrahedral arrangement, however is measured at 106.7°.
The nitrogen atom within the molecule features a lone
electron set, which makes ammonia a base, a proton acceptor. This shape
provides the molecule a dipole moment and makes it polar. The molecule's
polarity and, especially, its capability to form hydrogen bonds, makes ammonia
extremely miscible with water.
Ammonia is moderately basic, a 1.0 M aqueous solution
features a pH of 11.6 and if a solid acid is put into such a solution until the
solution is neutral (pH = 7), 99.4% of the ammonia molecules are protonated.
Ammonia is a substance having the formula NH3. It is
generally came across like a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia
contributes significantly to the nutritional requirements of terrestrial
organisms by serving like a precursor to food products and fertilizers.
Ammonia, either indirectly or directly, is also a foundation for the synthesis
of numerous pharmaceuticals. Although in broad use, ammonia is both hazardous
Ammonia, as employed commercially, is often referred to as
anhydrous ammonia. This word emphasizes the lack of water in the material.
Because NH3 boils at -33 °C, the liquid should be stored at low temperature or
under high pressure. Its heat of vaporization is, however, sufficiently
excellent that NH3 can be quickly handled in ordinary beakers in a fume hood.
characteristics of ammonia are as follows:
Can be easily liquified due to strong Hydrogen Bonding
Lighter than Air (its density being 0.589 times that of air)
One of the most characteristic properties of ammonia is its
Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionizing powers
It is a protic substance, and is capable of formation of
it can also act as an extremely weak acid.
The ammonia molecule is actually a polar covalent molecule
composed of 3 atoms of Hydrogen and one atom of Nitrogen. The single Nitrogen
atom in an ammonia molecule is bonded to 3 atoms of Hydrogen via the sharing of
3 electron pairs, one with each atom of Hydrogen. In each of these 3 covalent
bonds created between Hydrogen and Nitrogen, one electron is provided by the
Hydrogen and one electron is provided by Nitrogen atom. This forms one set of shared
electrons. The structure of an ammonia molecule is listed below.
A single nitrogen atom has five electrons in its valence
shell in the normal situation (that is, when it has not misplaced any
The ammonia molecule is created by covalent bonding among
three Hydrogen atoms and one Nitrogen atom.
One of each valence electron of nitrogen and one electron of
hydrogen mix and form a single covalent bond. Likewise three bonds are created
between the Nitrogen atom and three Hydrogen atoms respectively.
Each Hydrogen atom provides 1 valence electron.
Since 3 of the 5 valence electrons of nitrogen are shared,
the two electrons that stay unshared are called a lone pair of electrons.
Thus you can find a total of 8 valence electrons
in the ammonia molecule, 5 from nitrogen and 3 from hydrogen.
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